UNIT OPERATION IN FOOD PROCESSES

International Teaching UNIT OPERATION IN FOOD PROCESSES

0622800024
DIPARTIMENTO DI INGEGNERIA INDUSTRIALE
EQF7
FOOD ENGINEERING
2021/2022

OBBLIGATORIO
YEAR OF COURSE 2
YEAR OF DIDACTIC SYSTEM 2019
SECONDO SEMESTRE
CFUHOURSACTIVITY
660LESSONS
Objectives
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
OBJECTIVE FUNCTION AND ITS CONSTRUCTION. PROCESS COSTS’ EVALUATION. PLANT AMORTIZATION. PLANT CAPACITY SELECTION IN RELATION TO THE MARKET. BREAK-EVEN POINT. TARGA PRODUCTION. RELIABILITY OF SERIES AND PARALLEL SYSTEMS. LAYOUT OF A FOOD PROCESSING PLANT. P&ID READING.
UTILITIES OF FOOD CHEMICAL PLANTS: STEAM PRODUCTION; COMPRESSED AIR UTILITY, FUEL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS.
PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES AND BALANCE EQUATIONS, REFERRED IN PARTICULAR TO THERMAL TREATMENTS, AT THE BASE OF THE FOLLOWING UNIT OPERATIONS OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY: PASTEURIZATION AND STERILIZATION; DRYING AND DEHYDRATION; FREEZING AND FREEZE-DRYING. DESIGN CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES OF THE CORRESPONDING EQUIPMENT.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING – ENGINEERING ANALYSIS
ABILITY TO ANALYZE THE AFFORDABILITY OF A PLANT. ABILITY TO DISCUSS THE EFFECT OF PROCESS ON PRODUCTS AND TO INDIVIDUATE TRADITIONAL OR INNOVATIVE UNIT OPERATIONS FOR FOOD PROCESSING. ABILITY TO INDIVIDUATE THE MOST APPROPRIATE METHODS FOR THE PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF THE EQUIPMENT USED IN FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY.

APPLYING KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING – ENGINEERING DESIGN
UNDERSTANDING ECONOMIC PRINCIPLES. DESIGN A BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A FOOD PROCESSING PLANT AND ASSESS THE UTILITIES. READ A P&ID SCHEMATIC. EVALUATE THE PROCESSING TIME OF SELECTED UNIT OPERATIONS OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY AND DESIGN THE EQUIPMENT OF A FOOD PROCESSING PLANT.

MAKING JUDGMENTS - ENGINEERING PRACTICE
ABILITY OF READING A PLANT LAYOUT AND INDIVIDUATE THE UTILITIES NECESSARY IN A FOOD PROCESSING PLANT. ABILITY TO INDIVIDUATE UNIT OPERATIONS AND EQUIPMENT FOR A CERTAIN PRODUCTION IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS – TRANSVERSAL SKILLS
ABILITY TO DISCUSS, VERBALLY, DIFFERENT SUBJECTS RELATED TO PLANT COSTS EVALUATION AND DESIGN CRITERIA OF THE UTILITIES. ABILITY TO READ A P&ID SCHEMATIC. ABILITY TO DISCUSS, VERBALLY AND IN A WRITTEN TEST, THE CRITERIA TO EVALUATE THE PROCESSING TIME AND TO DESIGN THE EQUIPMENT OF CERTAIN UNIT OPERATIONS OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY.

LEARNING SKILLS – TRANSVERSAL SKILLS
KNOWING HOW TO APPLY THE ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE IN DIFFERENT CONTEXTS THAN THOSE PRESENTED DURING THE COURSE AND TO DEEPEN THE TOPICS DEALT, SPECIALIZING THEM TO SPECIFIC PLANT PROPOSED.

LEARNING SKILLS – INVESTIGATION SKILLS
ABILITY TO DESIGN A BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A FOOD INDUSTRY PRODUCTION DIFFERENT FROM THOSE ALREADY ANALYZED DURING THE LECTURES AND TO READ THE P&ID OF DIFFERENT PROCESSES. ABILITY TO FIND, MANAGE AND DEVELOP INDEPENDENTLY THE KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION NECESSARY TO DESIGN THE EQUIPMENT TO CARRY OUT THE UNIT OPERATIONS OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY.
Prerequisites
FOR THE SUCCESSFUL ACHIEVEMENT OF THE COURSE OBJECTIVES, THE STUDENTS ARE REQUIRED TO HAVE BASIC MATHEMATICAL KNOWLEDGE, AND KNOWLEDGE RELATED TO CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM AND MASS, ENERGY AND MOMENTUM BALANCES.
Contents
* CONTENTS IN COMMON FOR IMPIANTI DELL'INDUSTRIA ALIMENTARE I (9CFU) AND OPERAZIONI UNITARIE DELL'INDUSTRIA ALIMENTARE (6CFU):
AFTER A BRIEF PRESENTATION OF THE COURSE SYLLABUS AND THE PROCEDURE FOR LEARNING ASSESSMENT, THE COURSE WILL FOCUS ON THE FOLLOWING TOPICS:
THE CURRENT ISSUES OF THE FOOD INDUSTRY. INTERACTION BETWEEN TECHNOLOGICAL TREATMENTS AND THE MAIN CHEMICAL, NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORIAL COMPOUNDS OF FOOD. (2H TEORIA, 0H ESER, 0H LAB)
THE MEASUREMENT OF THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FOOD: WATER ACTIVITY, POROSITY, COLOR, TEXTURE, VISCOSITY. (0H TEORIA, 0H ESER, 3H LAB)
THERMAL TREATMENTS. FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE MICROBIAL INACTIVATION, INACTIVATION KINETICS: THERMAL DEATH CURVES, DECIMAL REDUCTION TIME, HEAT RESISTANCE, THERMAL DEATH TIME AND THE CONCEPT OF COMMERCIAL STERILITY, CALCULATION OF TREATMENT TIME AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE, STERILIZATION / PASTEURIZATION. CRITERIA FOR SIZING OF EQUIPMENT CONTINUOUS AND DISCONTINUOUS; EFFECTS OF PROCESS OVER PRODUCT (8H TEORIA, 6H ESER, 0H LAB)
DRYING. DEFINITION OF DRYING AND DEHYDRATION; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF HUMID AIR. MATERIAL AND ENERGY BALANCES, DEGREES OF FREEDOM OF THE DRYING. CURVE OF DEHYDRATION, DRYING RATE AS A FUNCTION OF WATER CONTENT. CALCULATION OF THE DRYING RATE CONSTANT AND DECREASING. DESIGN CRITERIA FOR BATCH AND CONTINUOUS DRYERS. EFFECT OF PROCESS OVER PRODUCT. CHARACTERISTICS OF ATOMIZERS, DESIGN CRITERIA OF THE TOWERS OF SPRAY DRYING (11H TEORIA, 9H ESER, 0H LAB)
FREEZING. REFRIGERATION CYCLE. SIZING OF A COOLING / FREEZING. PROPERTIES OF FROZEN FOODS. SIMPLIFIED FORMULAS FOR CALCULATING THE TIME OF FREEZING. ADVANCED FORMULAS FOR CALCULATING THE TIME OF FREEZING. EFFECTS OF PROCESS OVER PRODUCT (8H TEORIA, 6H ESER, 0H LAB).
FREEZE DRYING. PRINCIPLES OF FREEZE-DRYING. LIMITATIONS TO THE HEAT TRANSPORT. LIMITATIONS TO THE TRANSPORT OF MATTER. CALCULATION OF TIME AND FREEZE DRYING PLANT DESIGN CRITERIA. EFFECTS OF PROCESS OVER PRODUCT. THE FREEZE-DRYING AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE (4H TEORIA, 3H ESER, 0H LAB).

* CONTENTS FOR IMPIANTI DELL'INDUSTRIA ALIMENTARE I (9CFU)
ECONOMIC CRITERIA OF PLANT DESIGN (6H THEORY, 0H PRAC, 0H LAB)
OBJECTIVE FUNCTION AND ITS CONSTRUCTION. PROCESS COSTS’ EVALUATION. PLANT CAPACITY SELECTION IN RELATION TO THE MARKET. BREAK-EVEN POINT. TARGA PRODUCTION. RELIABILITY OF SERIES AND PARALLEL SYSTEMS.
INDUSTRIAL SITES AND LAYOUT OF FOOD PLANTS (8H THEORY, 2H PRAC, 0H LAB)
UTILITIES OF CHEMICAL PLANTS: DEFINITION AND TYPOLOGIES. STEAM PRODUCTION PLANTS; OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF BOILERS AND INDUSTRIAL FURNACES. STEAM GENERATORS. STEAM TURBINES. STEAM PRODUCTION CYCLE. FUEL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN CHEMICAL PLANTS. PROCESS WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS. COMPRESSED AIR UTILITY. COMPRESSION AND AIR PURIFICATION SYSTEMS. CALCULATION OF COMPRESSION WORK. AIR PRODUCTION PLANTS. SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS IN PROCESS AND FOOD INDUSTRY FACILITIES.
FLOW SHEETING: BLOCK DIAGRAM, PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM, PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM ((9H THEORY, 5H PRAC, 0H LAB)
BLOCK DIAGRAM, PFD. THE REMARKABLE OPERATIONAL CONDITIONS: NORMAL CASE, MAXIMUM OR DESIGN CASE AND MINIMUM CONDITIONS. LOGIC FOR MEASURE INSTRUMENTS, CONTROL AND INTERLOCK SYSTEMS. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM (PFD). HEAT AND MASS BALANCES AND ELABORATION OF A PFD. P & ID MEANING AND USEFULNESS DURING THE DESIGN AND DURING OPERATION PLANT MANAGEMENT. P & ID CONTENT. P & ID SYMBOLS. EXAMPLES AND READING P & ID.
Teaching Methods
THE NUMBER OF TEACHING HOURS OF THE COURSE OF IMPIANTI DELL’INDUSTRIA ALIMENTARE I IS 90 (9CFU). THE COURSE COMPRISES FRONTAL LECTURING (56 HOURS), CLASSROOM EXERCISES (31 HOURS) AND LABORATORY PRACTICAL CLASSES (3 HOURS).
THE NUMBER OF TEACHING HOURS OF THE COURSE OF OPERAZIONI UNITARIE DELL’INDUSTRIA ALIMENTARE IS 60 (6CFU). THE COURSE COMPRISES FRONTAL LECTURING (33 HOURS), CLASSROOM EXERCISES (24 HOURS) AND LABORATORY PRACTICAL CLASSES (3 HOURS).
THE FRONTAL LECTURING ADDRESSES THE MAIN THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF THE COURSE TOPICS. IT IS USUALLY CARRIED OUT USING A COMPUTER-AIDED PRESENTATION AND THE BLACKBOARD, WITH THE SUPPORT OF COURSE MATERIAL.
PRACTICAL LESSONS IN CLASSROOM CONSIST OF EXERCISES FOR THE CALCULATION OF PROCESSING TIMES AND EVALUATION OF EQUIPMENT SIZE, DESIGNING THE UTILITIES AND P & ID SCHEMAS READING.
LABORATORY LESSONS AIM SHOWING THE STUDENTS SOME ASPECTS OF PASTEURIZATION AND STERILIZATION OPERATIONS, INCLUDING THE DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF FOODS.
IN THE CASE FOREIGN STUDENTS ARE ATTENDING THIS COURSE (EITHER ERASMUS STUDENTS OR STUDENTS OF THE MASTER DEGREE IN FOOD ENGINEERING FOR WHOM THE COURSE IS COMPULSORY), THE COURSE IS TAUGHT IN ENGLISH AND REPRESENTS A PREREQUISITE FOR THE ACCESS OF THE STUDENTS TO THE MASTER DEGREE IN FOOD ENGINEERING.
ATTENDANCE AT THE LECTURES IS STRONGLY RECOMMENDED.
Verification of learning
THE EVALUATION OF THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE SET OUTCOMES IS CARRIED OUT WITH A WRITTEN TEST AND AN ORAL INTERVIEW.
THE WRITTEN TEST, WHICH IS PRELIMINARY TO THE ORAL EXAM, CONSISTS IN ADDRESSING TWO EXERCISES ON TWO DIFFERENT UNIT OPERATIONS, AMONG THOSE PRESENTED DURING THE LECTURES. THE TEST HAS A DURATION OF 2H.
THE ORAL INTERVIEW TYPICALLY LASTS 30MIN. THE STUDENT IS ASKED TO DISCUSS THE PRINCIPLES OF ONE OF THE UNIT OPERATION PRESENTED DURING CLASSES. AS FAR AS PLANT COSTS, UTILITIES SIZING CRITERIA, SCHEMATIZATION OF PLANTS AND READING OF P & ID SCHEMAS, THE STUDENT IS ASKED TO ANSWER THREE QUESTIONS ON THE LISTED TOPICS.
EACH PART OF THE EXAM (EVALUATED WITH A MAXIMUM SCORE OF 30/30) IS POSITIVELY PASSED IF THE SCORE ACHIEVED BY THE STUDENT EXCEEDS 18/30. THE FINAL SCORE IS EVALUATED AS THE WEIGHED MEAN OF THE SCORES GIVEN IN EACH PART OF THE EXAM.
TO PASS THE EXAM THE STUDENT MUST DEMONSTRATE THAT HE IS ABLE TO UNDERSTAND AND KNOW HOW TO APPLY THE MAIN CONCEPTS AND METHODOLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS DISCUSSED IN THE COURSE. IT IS CONSIDERED AN ESSENTIAL CONDITION FOR PASSING THE EXAM THE CORRECT FORMULATION OF THE MASS AND ENERGY BALANCES, THE EVALUATION OF THE PROCESSING TIME AND THE SIZING OF THE EQUIPMENT.
THE FINAL SCORE DEPENDS ON THE DEGREE OF MATURITY ACQUIRED ON THE CONTENT AND ON THE METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH OUTLINED DURING LECTURES, TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ALSO THE QUALITY OF THE WRITTEN TEST AND ORAL INTERVIEW.
THE STUDENT ACHIEVES THE LEVEL OF EXCELLENCE IF HE / SHE IS ABLE TO APPLY THE ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE TO CONTEXTS DIFFERENT FROM THOSE PRESENTED DURING THE COURSE.
Texts
R. P. SINGH, INTRODUCTION TO FOOD ENGINEERING, ACADEMIC PRESS, NEW YORK USA.
P.J. FELLOWS, FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY: PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE, WOODHEAD PUBL. LTD., CAMBRIDGE; UK.
DOCUMENTS GIVEN BY THE TEACHER.
More Information
TEACHING LANGUAGE
ITALIAN/ENGLISH.


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