PROCESS UNIT OPERATIONS

International Teaching PROCESS UNIT OPERATIONS

0622800025
DIPARTIMENTO DI INGEGNERIA INDUSTRIALE
EQF7
FOOD ENGINEERING
2021/2022



OBBLIGATORIO
YEAR OF COURSE 1
YEAR OF DIDACTIC SYSTEM 2019
PRIMO SEMESTRE
CFUHOURSACTIVITY
12120LESSONS
Objectives
EDUCATIONAL GOALS:
THE COURSE DEALS WITH COMPLEX UNIT OPERATIONS OF THE FOOD, PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES. THE AIM IS TO PROVIDE THE STUDENTS WITH THE ABILITY TO DESIGN AND MANAGE THE UNIT OPERATIONS COVERED BY THE COURSE, USING THE TYPICAL TOOLS OF ENGINEERING.

EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOMES:
KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
UNDERSTANDING OF THE METHODOLOGICAL-OPERATIONAL ASPECTS OF CHEMICAL AND INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING, WITH REGARD TO THE OPERATION OF EQUIPMENT FOR COMPLEX UNIT OPERATIONS SUCH AS LIQUID-LIQUID AND SOLID-LIQUID EXTRACTION, ADSORPTION, CRYSTALLIZATION, AS WELL AS THE OPTIMIZATION OF HEAT EXCHANGE NETWORKS AND THE OPERATIONS OF INDUSTRIAL REFRIGERATION.

ABILITY TO APPLY KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING
ENGINEERING ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
APPLICATION OF THE KNOWLEDGE REQUIE TO ANALYZE AND SOLVE PROBLEMS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, AND TO DESIGN AND DEVELOP COMPLEX EQUIPMENT, UNDER OPERATING CONDITIONS FAR FROM IDEAL OR INVOLVING MULTIPLE CONSTITUENTS.

AUTONOMY OF JUDGMENT
- ABILITY TO INTEGRATE KNOWLEDGE FROM DIFFERENT ENGINEERING SECTORS, AND FROM COMPLEXITY MANAGEMENT.
- ABILITY TO APPLY THE RIGOROUS APPROACH TYPICAL OF ALL ENGINEERING TRAINING, THROUGH LOGICAL AND MATHEMATICAL METHODS AND TOOLS FOR THE DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT OF COMPLEX EQUIPMENT.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS
DEVELOPMENT OF THE ABILITY TO COMMUNICATE WITH PROFESSIONALS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS AND FROM DIFFERENT DISCIPLINES, WITH APPROPRIATE USE OF THE TECHNICAL VOCABULARY AND DOCUMENTATION AND ENGINEERING TOOLS, WITH REGARD TO THE DESIGN, IMPLEMENTATION AND MANAGEMENT OF ADVANCED UNIT OPERATIONS.

LEARNING ABILITY
- DEVELOPMENT OF THE COGNITIVE TOOLS FOR AUTONOMOUS CONTINUOUS UPDATING OF THEIR KNOWLEDGE USING TECHNICAL AND SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE IN ITALIAN AND IN ENGLISH OR OTHER FOREIGN LANGUAGES;
- DEVELOPMENT OF THE ABILITY TO FIND, ANALYZE AND INTERPRET EXPERIMENTAL AND MODEL DATA ON PLANTS AND PROCESSES, EVEN OF CONSIDERABLE COMPLEXITY, AND IN NEW AND EMERGING SECTORS;
- DEVELOPMENT OF THE ABILITY TO IDENTIFY, LOCATE AND OBTAIN THE REQUESTED DATA IN AN AUTONOMOUS MANNER.
Prerequisites
ESSENTIAL PREREQUISITES:
- CONCEPTS OF MOMENTUM, ENERGY AND MATERIAL BALANCES ON CLOSED AND ON OPEN SYSTEMS
- CONCEPTS OF TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS
- CONCEPTS OF DIFFERENTIAL AND INTEGRAL CALCULUS
- THERMODYNAMICS
Contents
1. INTRODUCTION ON CHEMICAL AND FOOD PLANTS, PROCESSES, AND UTILITIES (3 H THEOR., 3 H EXERC.)
THE COURSE, ITS ORGANIZATION, THE TEACHERS, THE EXAM. THE PROCESS DIAGRAMS: BLOCK FLOW DIAGRAM (BFD), PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM (PFD) AND PROCESS AND INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&ID). USE OF SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR PROCESS DIAGRAM DESIGN. INTRODUCTION TO PROCESS SIMULATION AND COMPUTER TECHNIQUES, WITH EXAMPLES. GLOBAL PLANT MASS AND ENERGY BALANCES. CALCULATION SHEET COMPLYING WITH INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS: THEORY AND PRACTICE.

2. TOTAL ENERGY REQUIREMENTS/ACTUAL ENERGY REQUIREMENTS (5 H THEOR., 6 H EXERC.)
INTRODUCTION TO THE PINCH METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF MINIMUM ENERGY REQUIREMENTS, COLD AND HOT UTILITIES. DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGE NETWORKS. NEW DESIGNS AND REVAMPING. EXERCISES.

3. MIXING AND SEPARATION (2 H THEOR., 1 H EXERC.)
MIXING OF LIQUIDS. MIXING OF SOLIDS. FILTRATION, CENTRIFUGATION, SCREENING (ALSO BATCH).

4. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION (7 H THEOR., 8 H EXERC.)
PRINCIPLES OF EXTRACTION. EXPERIMENTAL CONSTRUCTION OF A TERNARY DIAGRAM. DESIGN OF AN EXTRACTION PLANT: ANALYTICAL AND GRAPHIC APPROACH. VERIFICATION PROBLEMS.

5. SOLID-LIQUID EXTRACTION (7 H THEOR., 8 H EXERC.)
MACERATION; PERCOLATION; SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION. EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION, STRUCTURISATION AND TEXTURISATION. EXTRACTION ASSISTED BY PEF.

6. ADSORPTION/DESORPTION (7 H THEOR., 9 H EXERC.)
DESCRIPTION OF TYPICAL APPLICATIONS. EQUILIBRIUM ISOTHERMS. DESCRIPTION EQUATIONS AND MECHANISMS. DESIGN OF ADSORPTION/DESORPTION UNITS. MASS BALANCES. BREAKTHROUGH CURVES. DESORPTION. CYCLES OF ADSORPTION/DESORPTION. BATCH PLANTS OF ADSORPTION/DESORPTION. EXERCISES.

7. CRYSTALLIZATION (7 H THEOR., 9 H EXERC.)
DESCRIPTION OF CRYSTALLIZATION. PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE INDUCED CRYSTALLIZATION. NUCLEATION AND GROWING. MODELS OF CRYSTALLIZATION. HOMOGENEOUS AND HETEROGENEOUS DESCRIPTIVE MODELS. POPULATION BALANCE OF CRYSTALS. DESIGN OF A CRYSTALLIZATION UNIT. CRITICAL ANALYSIS AND LIMITS OF DESIGN. BATCH CRYSTALLIZATION UNITS. EXERCISES.

8. OTHER BATCH PROCESSES OF INTEREST FOR FOOD AND PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY (3 H THEOR., 2 H EXERC.)
BATCH DISTILLATION OPERATING MODES AND CONFIGURATIONS. BATCH DRYING. BATCH STERILIZATION. BATCH OPERATIONS IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY: BAKING, ROASTING, FRYING.

8. HYGIENIC DESIGN RULES AND CLEANING CONSIDERATIONS (3 H THEOR.)
DIFFERENT HYGIENIC CLEANING STRATEGIES. EQUIPMENT AND REGULATIONS.

9. REFRIGERATION CYCLES (20 H THEOR., 8 H EXERC., 2 H LAB.)
FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENTS OF THERMODYNAMICS OF THE REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS. VAPOR COMPRESSION PLANTS: PRINCIPLES, TYPES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF REFRIGERANT FLUIDS, COMPONENTS, DESIGN, DYNAMIC OPERATION, ADJUSTMENT OF FRIGORIFIED POWER, TRANSCRITICAL PLANTS, OPERATING LIMITS. PLANT DESIGN.
Teaching Methods
THE COURSE CONSISTS IN FRONT LESSONS (64 H, 6.4 CFU), CLASSROOM EXERCISES (54 H, 5.4 CFU) AND ACTIVITIES IN LAB (2 H, 0.2 CFU) FOR A TOTAL AMOUNT OF 120 HOURS (12 CFU), WHICH ARE WORTH 12 CREDITS.
THE FRONTAL LECTURING ADDRESSES THE MAIN THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF THE COURSE TOPICS. IT IS USUALLY CARRIED OUT USING A COMPUTER-AIDED PRESENTATION AND THE BLACKBOARD, WITH THE SUPPORT OF COURSE MATERIAL.
THE EXERCISE LESSONS ARE ADDRESSED TO ANALYZE AND SOLVE DESIGN OR VERIFICATION PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE UNIT OPERATIONS INTRODUCED BY THE COURSE, AND ARE CARRIED OUT BY THE TEACHER, WITH THE STUDENTS WORKING EITHER COOPERATIVELY OR INDIVIDUALLY ON THE SAME PROBLEM.
THE LABORATORY PRACTICAL CLASSES ARE ADDRESSED TO SHOW THE STUDENTS THE TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS RELATED TO THE UNIT OPERATIONS INTRODUCED BY THE COURSE.
THE STUDENTS ARE REQUIRED TO DEVELOP TWO PROJECTS. THE FIRST ONE CONCERNS THE DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN OF A CALCULATION SHEET IN EXCEL® FOR THE RESOLUTION OF SOME OF THE PROBLEMS FACED IN THE EXERCISE LESSONS. THE SECOND CONCERNS THE DESIGN OF A REFRIGERATION PLANT FOR A FOOD PROCESSING APPLICATION, AND IS CARRIED OUT COOPERATIVELY IN GROUPS.

ATTENDANCE AT THE LECTURES IS STRONGLY RECOMMENDED
Verification of learning
THE ASSESSMENT OF THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE OBJECTIVES WILL BE BASED ON A WRITTEN TEST, THE DISCUSSION OF THE PROJECTS DEVELOPED DURING THE COURSE, AND AN ORAL INTERVIEW.
THE WRITTEN TEST TYPICALLY CONSISTS OF THREE QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED IN THREE HOURS. A LIST OF PAST TESTS IS DISTRIBUTED TO THE STUDENTS AS COURSE MATERIAL.
THE QUESTIONS CONCERN DESIGN OR VERIFICATION PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE UNIT OPERATIONS INTRODUCED BY THE COURSE. IN ORDER TO PASS THE TEST, THE STUDENT MUST DEMONSTRATE TO BE ABLE TO ANALYZE THE PROBLEMS, WRITE THE RELEVANT MASS AND ENERGY EQUATIONS, AS WELL AS TRANSPORT EQUATIONS, AND THE APPROPRIATE DESIGN EQUATIONS, AND CARRY OUT THE ASSOCIATED NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS CORRECTLY.
THE DISCUSSION OF THE PROJECTS TYPICALLY LASTS ABOUT 20 MIN. IT IS FOCUSED ON THE VERIFICATION OF THE CORRECT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SOLUTION EQUATIONS IN THE CALCULATION SHEETS, AND ON THE VERIFICATION OF THE DESIGN OF A REFRIGERATION PLANT.
THE ORAL INTERVIEW, WHICH TYPICALLY LASTS ABOUT 30 MIN, IS CARRIED OUT ONCE THE WRITTEN TEST HAS BEEN POSITIVELY PASSED. IT FOCUSES COMPULSORILY ON THE REFRIGERATION CYCLES. EVENTUALLY, THE STUDENT, WHO IS NOT SATISFIED WITH THE OUTCOME OF THE WRITTEN TEST, MAY ASK FOR AN ORAL INTERVIEW ALSO ON PARTS 1-8 OF THE PROGRAM.
IT IS AN ESSENTIAL CONDITION FOR PASSING THE WRITTEN TEST THE CORRECT FORMULATION OF THE MASS AND ENERGY BALANCES AND OF THE DESIGN EQUATIONS OF AT LEAST TWO PROBLEMS OF THE THREE PROPOSED. THE STUDENT REACHES THE LEVEL OF EXCELLENCE ONCE PROVING TO BE ABLE TO DEAL WITH PROBLEMS (INCLUDING UNUSUAL OR NOT SPECIFICALLY PRESENTED IN CLASS) OPERATING THE CORRECT SIMPLIFICATIONS AND REACHING A COMPLETE SOLUTION OF ALL THE PARTS, INCLUDING THE NUMERICAL CALCULATIONS.
THE EVALUATION OF THE ORAL INTERVIEW IS BASED ON THE DEGREE OF MASTERING OF THE CONTENT AND OF THE METHODOLOGICAL TOOLS ON THE TOPICS OF THE COURSE, TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE QUALITY OF THE EXPOSITION AND THE AUTONOMY OF JUDGMENT DEMONSTRATED.
THE WRITTEN TEST, ASSESSED WITH A MARK EXPRESSED IN A SCALE FROM 1 TO 30, WEIGHS 9/12 OF THE BASIS OF THE FINAL MARK. THE ORAL INTERVIEW, ASSESSED WITH A MARK EXPRESSED IN A SCALE FROM 1 TO 30, WEIGHS 3/12 OF THE BASIS OF THE FINAL MARK. THEREFORE, THE BASIS OF THE FINAL MARK IS CALCULATED AS THE WEIGHTED AVERAGE BETWEEN THE WRITTEN AND THE ORAL PART. TO THIS BASIS, A MARK COMPRISED BETWEEN 0 AND 3 IS ADDED, DEPENDING ON THE EVALUATION OF THE PROJECTS DEVELOPED DURING THE COURSE. THE VOTE OF 30 CUM LAUDE IS AWARDED TO THE STUDENTS, WHOSE WEIGHTED AVERAGE IS HIGHER THAN 30.
Texts
UNIT OPERATIONS OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, 5TH ED, MCCABE & SMITH
UNIT OPERATIONS IN FOOD ENGINEERING - A. IBARZ, G. BARBOSA-CANOVAS (CRC, 2003)
COULSON AND RICHARDSON’S
J. F. RICHARDSON, J. H. HARKER, J. R. BACKHURST. COULSON AND RICHARDSON’S CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, VOLUME 2, FIFTH EDITION. PARTICLE TECHNOLOGY AND SEPARATION PROCESSES ( BUTTERWORTH-HEINEMANN, 2002)
IAN C KEMP. PINCH ANALYSIS AND PROCESS INTEGRATION: A USER GUIDE ON PROCESS INTEGRATION FOR THE EFFICIENT USE OF ENERGY. SECOND EDITION (ELSEVIER, 2007)
KARL BREIDENBACH, UBERTO STEFANUTTI, MANUALE DEL FREDDO, TECNICHE NUOVE
G.F. HUNDY, A.R. TROTT, T.C. WELCH, REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING, 4TH EDITION, BUTTERWORTH HEINEMANN, ELSEVIER
W.F. STOECKER, J.W. LONES, REFRIGERATION & AIR CONDITIONING, MCGRAW-HILL
PRINCIPLES OF REFRIGERATION, R.J. DOSSAT, T.J. HORAN, PRENTICE HALL, 2001 CONDIZIONAMENTO DELL'ARIA E REFRIGERAZIONE, C. PIZZETTI, CEA, 1980/2
COURSE MATERIAL IS DISTRIBUTED THROUGH THE E-LEARNING PLATFORM OF THE UNIVERSITY OF SALERNO (HTTPS://ELEARNING.UNISA.IT).
THE COURSE SLIDES (MODULE ON REFRIGERATION CYCLES) ARE DISTRIBUTED THROUGH THE INTERNET PAGE: HTTP://WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/REFRIGERATIONLAB
More Information
TEACHING LANGUAGE: ENGLISH.

PLACE AND TIME OF DELIVERY
THE COURSE IS DELIVERED AT THE FACULTY OF ENGINEERING. PLEASE LOOK UP INTO THE FACULTY WEBSITE (HTTP://WWW.INGEGNERIA.UNISA.IT/) FOR THE INDICATION OF THE TIMETABLE AND OF THE CLASSROOM.
  BETA VERSION Data source ESSE3